Minggu, 30 Oktober 2011

Beasiswa Ilmu-ilmu Sosial di Universitas Brunel, Inggris

We are delighted to announce nine funded PhD studentships* in social
sciences at Brunel University for UK, EU and international students
for a January 2012 start, (or as soon as possible thereafter).

The School of Social Sciences is providing opportunities for promising
academic talent to undertake doctoral study. This is a significant
opportunity for those who show academic excellence in our areas of

Successful applicants will be awarded £12,372 per annum over three
years, which includes a fee-waiver of £3,732 and a stipend of £9,000.
In exceptional cases an additional fee contribution for international
students may be available.

In return, students will be required to undertake up to 150 hours of
teaching/academic work per year. This is an excellent opportunity for
students to gain valuable experience for their future academic career.

We are interested in receiving applications across the following
disciplines and welcome applications that are inter-disciplinary in

Economics and Finance
Politics, International Relations and History
Sociology and Communications

Selection criteria

In addition to applicants having to meet the subject's normal entry
criteria, the School's Studentship Selection Panel will be reviewing
applications to ensure that the research topic proposed is of
excellent quality, well developed, coherent and achievable within the
three years. The Panel is seeking candidates who have demonstrated
significant progress in their academic career so far.

How to apply

Applicants must:

apply for a PhD online
meet the entry criteria for the PhD programme in their chosen subject area
be a new applicant for a PhD (all applications must be received by
the deadline) or
hold an existing offer of a PhD from Social Sciences at Brunel University.

New applicants must attach a letter to the application stating that
they wish to apply for the scholarship. Existing offer holders must
submit a letter of application to sss-resadmin@brunel.ac.uk by the

Closing date: Wednesday 23 November 2011

For further information: sss-resadmin@brunel.ac.uk

*The PhD scholarships only apply to our current full-time PhD courses
and are not applicable to the part-time PhD courses or the New Route

For more information, please visit official website: www.brunel.ac.uk

Beasiswa S1, Master dan PhD Norwegia bagi Siswa Negara Berkembang

[Norway] Bachelor Scholarships, Master Scholarships and PhD
Scholarships for Students from Developing Countries

college scholarships

Bachelor Scholarships, Master Scholarships and PhD Scholarships for
Students from Developing Countries

The 2012-2013 Norwegian government provides students from developing
countries in the South and countries in the Western Balkans, Eastern
Europe and in Central Asia with financial support to study for a
degree in Norway under the Quota Scheme. The Quota Scheme currently
provides funding for a total of 1,100 students, 800 of them from
developing countries in the South and 300 from countries in the
Western Balkans, Eastern Europe and in Central Asia.

The main objective of the Quota Scheme is to contribute to capacity
building through education that will benefit the home country of the
students when they return. The Quota Scheme is also intended to
strengthen relations between Norway and the selected countries and
thus contribute to internationalisation at Norwegian institutions of
higher education.

Most universities and university colleges in Norway participate in the
Quota scheme. The institutions involved are allocated a certain number
of students under the programme each year. The scheme normally
includes courses at Master`s and Ph.D. level in addition to certain
professional/Bachelor`s degrees. Most of the Norwegian institutions
offer courses and educational programmes in English.

Finding a study programme/institution of interest
See the participation institutions` websites to find more detailed
information about the study programmes, available courses, admission
requirements and application procedures concerning the Quota Scheme.
You may also search the online Master`s programme catalogue which
provides an overview of all study programmes at Master`s level that
are offered in English at Norwegian universities and university

All inquiries should be directed to the International Office at the
institution in question. Applications should be sent directly to the
institutions and SIU is not responsible for received applications. The
deadline for applications for the Quota scheme is usually 1 December
every year. Some courses and educational programmes may have other

Recruitment enrollment
The Quota Scheme will only enrol students from institutions
(organisations, universities, authorities) which have collaboration
agreements with Norwegian universities or university colleges.
Norwegian institutions usually do not admit free movers (individual
applicants) to this scheme. Only in very special cases will free
movers be considered. Please contact the institutions directly for
individual information.

Students who come to Norway as self-financing students will, as a
rule, not be considered as being qualified for the Quota Scheme.

To find out which institutions collaborate with Norwegian
institutions, please refer to the websites of the Norwegian
institutions. You could also ask your home institution about whether
they have any sort of collaboration with Norwegian universities /
university colleges from the list of participating institutions.

Scholarships for students
Each student receives the same amount of money as a Norwegian student
would do in an equivalent educational programme. 40 per cent of the
amount is given as a grant and 60 per cent as a loan. However, the
loan portion may be waived when the student returns to his/her home
country after completing the course of study. Students who stay in
Norway after finishing their studies or take up residence in another
country than their home country must repay the loan. Normally, the
financial support given will not exceed a time span of four years for
one definite study plan or a combination of two programmes. Part-time
studies are not supported.

Travelling expenses for entry into Norway may be reimbursed (fixed
price). Students can apply for one annual home visit if the
educational programme lasts longer than one year and for financial
support for travelling expenses for field work during the course of
study. When the student returns home within 3 months after finishing
his/her studies, the cost of travelling home is covered by the
Norwegian State Educational Loan Fund.

List of countries
The Quota Scheme includes developing countries as defined by OECD (the
DAC-list) as Least Developed, Other Low Income and Lower Middle Income
Countries. In addition, South Africa, Russian Federation, Brazil and
Cuba are included in the Quota Scheme. Be aware that China is on the
list, but students from Taiwan are not eligible for the scholarship.

Basic general requirements
As a student, you must apply directly from your home country. You must
have stayed at least one year in your home country directly prior to
the planned course of study at the Norwegian university /university
college. To be eligible to apply for the Quota Scheme, you must be
able to find your home country on this list.

Students usually apply for degree programmes that serve as a
continuation of their studies in their home country or for courses
which can be a joint part of a degree programme in their home country
(joint degree or sandwich programmes). Most of the programmes offered
are at Master`s or PhD level, but the Quota Scheme also offers certain
Bachelor`s study programmes.

All candidates should typically have the following basic qualifications:

Secondary school certificates
Minimum two years of higher education from their home country

Some exceptions apply for certain professional educational courses at
Bachelor`s level.

The GSU-list (has been compiled by the Norwegian Agency for Quality
Assurance in Education - NOKUT) with the general entrance requirements
for applicants with higher education qualifications from abroad. NOKUT
is the Norwegian governmental organisation for recognition of foreign
higher education. If you cannot find your academic papers on the list
you may contact NOKUT directly to get an evaluation of your

Basic language requirements
Most of the study programmes offered under the Quota Scheme are taught
in English. Applicants who are not native English speakers therefore
must document their proficiency in English. Requirements may differ
between institutions and various study programmes. Please see the
university /university college`s website for more details about
language requirements.

A few courses in the Quota Scheme are offered in Norwegian and require
good skills in the Norwegian language. Students admitted to study
programmes that are mainly taught in Norwegian may receive additional
financial support for studying Norwegian language for one year prior
to their study.

Admission to the Quota Scheme is highly competitive and meeting the
minimum requirements is no guarantee for enrollment.

The official website:

Rabu, 26 Oktober 2011

Jangan Letakkan Seluruh Telurmu dalam Satu Keranjang

Mungkin kurang lebih itulah terjemahan kasar dari istilah “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket”. Artinya jangan tempatkan seluruh aset yang kita miliki di satu tempat saja. Letakkan di berbagai tempat yang berbeda sehingga bila terjadi hal negative yang tidak diinginkan, maka tidak seluruh aset anda akan hancur atau tergerus, tetapi hanya sebagian.

Pemikiran inilah yang mendasari keputusan memegang berbagai jenis instrumen investasi yang memiliki karakteristik yang berbeda dengan harapan terjadi penurunan risiko keseluruhan dari aset yang dipegang. Penurunan risiko ini disebabkan adanya karakteristik individual instrumen investasi dan hubungan (korelasi) antara instrument investasi satu dengan lainnya yang membentuk portofolio (kumpulan instrument investasi). Tujuannya jelas untuk mendiversifikasi risiko portofolio.

Pertanyaan yang muncul adalah, bagaimana penurunan risiko ini bisa terjadi? Mungkin jawabannya bisa diilustrasikan menggunakan analogi mata uang. Disaat kita memiliki sejumlah uang tertentu, dan uang tersebut dibagi dua dengan nilai yang sama, serta masing-masing ditempatkan pada dua mata uang yang berbeda. Ambil contoh misalnya sebagian di tempatkan di mata uang rupiah, sebagiannya lagi ditempatkan dalam mata uang dollar amerika.

Disaat mata uang rupiah melemah disaat yang bersamaan mata uang dollar amerika menguat. Pengutan atau melemahnya mata uang rupiah memiliki korelasi negative sempurna. Implikasinya, kerugian dari nilai asset dalam bentuk rupiah yang melemah ditutupi oleh keuntungan dari nilai asset dollar yang dipegang.

Konsep ini yang “dipinjam” untuk menjelaskan bagaimana memegang dua instrumen investasi dapat menghasilkan risiko yang lebih kecil dari risiko individual instrumen investasi tersebut bahkan dengan memegang seluruh instrumen investasi yang ada di pasar modal maupun investasi real, yang tersisa hanyalah risiko sistematisnya yang ditandai dengan kemungkinan penyimpangan hasil yang diharapkan akibat kondisi ekonomi misalnya, atau bahkan penyebab lain yang mempengaruhi pasar secara umum.

Akan tetapi bahkan secara acak, memegang 15 hingga 20 macam instrumen investasi dalam portofolio sudah cukup memberikan penurunan risiko yang sangat signifikan. Selebihnya, penerunan risiko tidak signifikan seiring bertambahnya jumlah instrumen investasi yang dipegang.

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